Tag Archives: Naxos

Interesting times (2)

December 2016 version of Sgt Pepper cover, by Chris Barker There’s an ancient Chinese curse or proverb: “May you live in interesting times…”

Well, there isn’t actually (it dates all the way back to the politician Austen Chamberlain in 1936) but I think we can all agree that 2016 has been… interesting!
Most of us would probably wish that 2017 is a little less so.

While Westminster Libraries can’t promise world peace or political stability, we can promise you some interesting anniversaries and the resources for interested people to carry out further research.

January

The year kicks off in January with the 75th anniversary of Desert Island Discs, which was first broadcast on 29 January 1942. It continues to this day with guests (rather tweely known as ‘castaways’) being asked to discuss the eight pieces of music they would take to a desert island. Later on, guests were allowed to choose a book and a luxury too. The first castaway was the ‘comedian, lightning club manipulator, violinist and comedy trick cyclist’, Vic Oliver. Oliver was not only a major star on the radio but also the son-in-law of Winston Churchill (something Churchill wasn’t too thrilled about, though Oliver never traded on the relationship). Though this episode doesn’t survive in the BBC archives, many hundreds of others do and  are available to listen online or download as podcasts. The earliest surviving episode has the actress Margaret Lockwood as a guest and other castaways include seven prime ministers, dozens of Oscar winners, a bunch of Olympic medallists, a few Royals and several criminals.

February

19 February brings the 300th anniversary of the birth of the actor, playwright and theatre manager David Garrick. Though he was a native of Lichfield (and former pupil of another Lichfield resident-turned-London-devotee, Samuel Johnson) by the age of 23, Garrick was acclaimed as the greatest actor on the English stage. He was a noted playwright but most famous for his Shakespearean roles – though he was not averse to ‘improving’ on the text – his adaptations included a Hamlet without the funeral of Ophelia and the need for the gravediggers, a ‘King Lear’ without the Fool and a Cordelia who lives on, an interpolated dying speech for Macbeth and a scene between the two lovers in the tomb before they die in ‘Romeo and Juliet’. Be honest – who wouldn’t want to see those? He ran the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane for nearly 30 years and he is now commemorated by a theatre and a pub (with Charing Cross Library neatly sandwiched in between).

March

1717 wasn’t just a significant year in the history of ‘legitimate’ theatre. 2 March that year saw the first performance (at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane)  of The Loves of Mars and Venus by John Weaver, generally regarded as the  first ballet performed in Britain. While there had been English masques and French ballets before this, Weaver was the first person to tell a story through the medium of dance without the need for songs or dialogue. Weaver was the son of the dancing master at Shrewsbury School (public school curricula must have been rather different in the 1600s).

Mrs Hester BoothIn 1703 he had staged (at Drury Lane) a performance called The Tavern Bilkers, usually regarded as the first English pantomime (he described it as “the first entertainment that appeared on the English Stage, where the Representation and Story was carried on by Dancing Action and Motion only”) but it was The Loves of Mars and Venus (the choreography of which survives) which established Weaver as the major figure in English dance until the twentieth century. Venus was played by Hester Santlow (shown dressed as a harlequin), one of the leading ballerinas of the day, who created many roles for Weaver.

April

Readers of a certain age will remember adverts for Memorex tapes (other brands are available) in which a singer shattered a glass with a high note and the trick was repeated when the tape was played back. Depending on exactly how certain your age is, you may have identified the singer as the great Ella Fitzgerald whose centenary is commemorated on 25 April 2017.

Growing up in a poor district of New York and orphaned in her early teens, Ella spent time in a reformatory but soon escaped and began to enter show business via talent competitions and amateur nights, becoming an established band singer. At the age of 21 she recorded a version of the children’s nursery rhyme A Tisket A Tasket which went on to sell over a million copies. She went on to become one of the greatest of all jazz singers, developing her own idiosyncratic style of ‘scat singing’. All through her career she fought prejudice, refusing to accept any discrimination in hotels and concert venues even when such treatment was  standard in the Southern USA.

You can listen to some of her greatest recordings via the Naxos Music Library and learn more about her career in Oxford Music Online (log in to each with your Westminster library card number).

May

May Day has long been a festival associated with dancing and celebration and more recently with political demonstrations. But 1 May 1517 has become known as Evil May Day. Tensions between native Londoners and foreigners lead one John Lincoln to persuade Dr Bell, the vicar of St Mary’s, Spitalfields to preach against incomers and to call upon “Englishmen to cherish and defend themselves, and to hurt and grieve aliens for the common weal.”. Even though the Under-Sherriff of London (none other than Sir Thomas More)  patrolled the streets, a riot broke out when they tried to arrest an apprentice for breaking the curfew. Soon afterwards, a crowd of young men began to attack foreigners and burn their houses. The rioting continued throughout May Day – fortunately, while some houses were burned down there were no fatalities. More than a thousand soldiers were needed to put down the riot. Lincoln and the other leaders were executed, but most were spared at the instigation of Cardinal Wolsey, who according to Edward Hall

‘fell on his knees and begged the king to show compassion while the prisoners themselves called out “Mercy, Mercy!” Eventually the king relented and granted them pardon. At which point they cast off their halters and “jumped for joy”.’

Sadly this was not the last outburst of anti-foreign feeling in London’s history but such incidents are thankfully rare.

June

Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone by JK RowlingA happier event took place on 30 June 1997 with the publication of Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone by JK Rowling.  It’s hard to remember a time when we didn’t all wish we’d received our letter to Hogwarts instead of going to a boring Muggle school.

But we all know about Harry so let’s move on.

July

To 12 July and first documented ride, in 1817, of the ‘dandy horse’ or ‘running machine’ or, to you and me, a bicycle without chains or pedals. This was the first means of transport to make use of the two-wheel principle and the creator was Baron Karl Drais , perhaps the most successful inventor you’ve never heard of, and he managed an impressive 10 miles in an hour. While it looks pretty clunky by today’s standards, Drais was inspired by the Year without a Summer of 1816 when crops failed and there weren’t enough oats to feed horses.

Dandy horse

Readers of Georgette Heyer’s Regency romances may remember thar Jessamy in Frederica was very proud of his skill with the ‘pedestrian curricle’. The Observer newspaper was enthralled by the invention of  ‘the velocipede or swift walker’ claiming in 1819 that, on a descent, ‘it equalled a horse at full-speed’ and suggesting that

‘on the  pavements of the Metropolis it might be impelled with great velocity, but this is forbidden. One conviction, under Mr Taylor’s Paving Act, took place on Tuesday. The individual was fined 2/-.’

When he wasn’t inventing bicycles Karl Drais was making an early typewriter, a haybox cooker and a meat grinder.

And on 27 July 1967, we note the 50th anniversary of the decriminalistion of homosexuality.  This will be celebrated with many events throughout the year such as this one at Benjamin Britten’s home and others at various National Trust properties.

August

Most of us can probably remember what we were doing on 31 August 1997 when we heard of the death of Diana, Princess of Wales and she will be on many people’s minds as the 20th anniversary of this event approaches.

A slightly more auspicious event took place on 17 August 1917, when the two war poets Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon met at the Craiglockhart War Hospital, an event written about by Pat Barker in her novel Regeneration, as well as Stephen Macdonald’s play Not about Heroes. Owen wrote two of his most beloved poems – Dulce Et Decorum Est and Anthem for Doomed Youth while he was in hospital (he also edited The Hydra, the patients’ magazine) and was tragically killed the following year at the very end of the war. Sassoon survived the war and wrote about his hospital experiences in the autobiographical novel Sherston’s Progress. You can read more about the lives of Owen, Sassoon and the other war poets in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (log in with your library card).

Wilfred Owen 

September

Another literary anniversary is upon us on 21 September, when we note the publication of one of the bestselling fantasy books of all time – The Hobbit by JRR Tolkien, about a small, shy creature who becomes involved in a quest for a dragon’s hoard. It was offered first to the publisher Stanley Unwin who asked his 10 year old son Raynor to review it for him,

Bilbo Baggins was a Hobbit who lived in his Hobbit hole and never went for adventures, at last Gandalf the wizard and his Dwarves persuaded him to go. He had a very exiting (sic) time fighting goblins and wargs. At last they get to the lonely mountain; Smaug, the dragon who guards it is killed and after a terrific battle with the goblins he returned home – rich!

This book, with the help of maps, does not need any illustrations it is good and should appeal to all children between the ages of 5 and 9.”

The Hobbit by JRR TolkienThe book was an instant success thanks to glowing newspaper reviews (The Manchester Guardian wrote ‘The quest of the dragon’s treasure  – rightfully the dwarves treasure – makes an exciting epic of travel, magical adventures, and – working up to a devastating climax, war. Not a story for pacifist children. Or is it?’) and has never been out of print. While embarking on the sequel, The Lord of the Rings, is a pretty daunting task, The Hobbit is still funny and exciting and highly recommended to that clichéd group – children of all ages.

October

The audience at Warner’s Theatre in New York on 6 October 1927 knew they were going to see an exciting new movie, but none of them could have predicted that motion pictures would never be the same again. The Jazz Singer was the first feature film with synchronised singing – no dialogue had been planned but the star, Al Jolson, couldn’t resist adlibbing on set and his ‘Wait a minute, you ain’t heard nothing yet’ (in fact, his stage catchphrase) has electrified audiences ever since.

The film was a huge hit making over $2,000,000 (having cost only $400,000) and Jolson became an international star. The movies didn’t look back and within three years, silent film was a thing of the past.

The Jazz singer posterTo be honest, seen now, the film (about a Jewish boy who defies his father to sing jazz) is slow, sentimental and creaky, and the less said about Al Jolson’s penchant for blackface the better, but it’s worth checking out his performance to see the sort of charisma that sold out Broadway theatres for 20 years.

You can also see how fan magazines reported it at the time by checking out the Lantern site – a fantastic archive of Hollywood magazines that will keep film buffs busy for days…

November

As of 2015 there were 5640 female clergy in the Church of England (with 14,820 men) and it’s predicted that women will make up 43% of the clergy by 2035. Yet the General Synod only voted to allow women priests (against fierce opposition from conservatives) on 25 November 1992. Now they are central to the life of the Church of England  and most of their opponents have been won over. Some of this can, of course, be attributed to The Vicar of Dibley with Dawn French as the eponymous lady priest, but they’re now so much part of the landscape that even Ambridge, home of the Archers has had a woman vicar.

December

3 December will be the 50th anniversary of the first heart transplant operationperformed by the South African surgeon Christian Barnard. The first patient, Lewis Washkansky, died 18 days after the operation (though he was  able to walk and talk after the transplant). The second patient to receive a heart was a baby who sadly didn’t survive the operation, but the third patient, Philip Blaiberg lived for another nineteen months. Six months later, in May 1968, the first British heart transplant took place at the National Heart Hospital in  Westmoreland Street, Marylebone. Now about 3,500 heart transplants take place each year and 50% of patients live for at least 10 years. So while none of us want one, it’s good to know they’re available.

Christiaan Barnard

You can find out more about these events and many more in our 24/7 library and of course the in the libraries themselves. Happy 2017!

[Nicky]

Music on the go

Which of our online resources do I love the best? It has to be Naxos Music Library.

Naxos Music Library from Westminster LibrariesApart from holding complete catalogues and selected recordings of over 640 record labels (such as Chandos, EMI Classics, Harmonia Mundi, RCA Records, Sony Classical, Teldec, Virgin Classics and Warner Classics), you can listen to classical music, jazz, world music, classic rock, and easy listening.

It covers a huge range of both standard and specialist repertoire, holds more than 108,359 CD-length recordings equivalent to 1,582, 955 tracks, with over 800 CD-length recordings added every month.

There are libretti and synopses for more than 700 operas, so no more sitting in a darkened theatre trying to figure out who is really a girl dressed as a boy or who stabbed who. There are over 40,000 composer and artist biographies and graded music exam playlists (ABRSM and Trinity/Guildhall), perfect for students of all ages and also for their addled parents.

For someone like me who is passionate about music this is truly a wonderful way to bring together so many of my favourite things, particularly when I know it’s all been professionally sourced. No more wondering if those Wikipedia entries are really that accurate…

But there’s something else about Naxos that you might not have realised. A few years ago Naxos launched an App, so you can set up a playlist account, install the App on both iOS and Android devices and use this to access Naxos. All our public library customers can access Naxos “on the go”, I have the Naxos app on my phone, it works brilliantly, and it couldn’t be simpler to get started.

You’ll need to be a member of our libraries as your email address and password will also act as your login credentials for the Naxos Music Library mobile App.

Go to the Naxos home page from our Westminster Libraries Online Resources page and click on the Mobile app link:

Naxos title bar with link to mobile app

Follow the instructions for Public Library Card Holders and hey presto! You’re now ready to save personal playlists, and enjoy Naxos Music Library anywhere. Log in to the Naxos Music Library App today and enjoy!

[Ruth]

 

All what jazz?

Music on the GatewaySome of you may have used our 24/7 resource Naxos Music Library (log in with your Westminster library card) to listen to classical recordings, but did you know it also boasts an impressive library of jazz legends and contemporary jazz?

Jazz being a bit of a passion of mine, I decided to put it to the test. When asked “Who is your all time favourite jazz artist” I usually answer: “Egberto Gismonti”, which often meets with a blank expression. This quirky Brazilian composer, guitarist and pianist isn’t your run of the mill main stream jazz artist, so I wasn’t expecting to find many – or even any – of his recordings on Naxos… how wrong was I? There are 22 separate albums listed, with all the album information – genre, category, composer, arrangers and artists – given as separate links. So if I wanted to listen to composers featured on Egberto’s albums such as Piazzolla or Villa Lobos, (even though I didn’t know I wanted to at the time) then the links will take me to a new page with a list of all their Naxos recordings, and in the case of an artist or composer, a biography.

I have noticed more and more courses appearing for the study of jazz, it’s frequently part of the school curriculum, and indeed a growing number of our customer enquiries at Westminster Music Library are jazz related. Naxos is a gift if you’re looking to “listen and learn” and don’t know where to start.

Having ploughed through the prescribed jazz text books as a student and saved up for those precious albums, I would have given anything to have access to a resource that not only meant I could listen to thousands of recordings for free without having to dip into my meagre student grant, but also gave me access to information on every category from Dixieland to avant-garde. Throughout each topic there are links to specific music in the main list of suggested listening, and there is also a supplementary list for further listening. Recordings of over 32,000 artists are represented from over 200 labels, and include the catalogue of Blue Note Records, Warner Jazz, EMI, and many more.

Here’s the techy bit. There are three ways you can search: browse the library alphabetically by CD title, keyword search by name of artist, track or disc title, and advanced search by a combination of criteria, plus you can access with iPhone or iPod Touch.

Naxos Music Library - log in with your Westminster library cardAs long as you’re a member of Westminster Libraries and in possession of a valid card, all you need is your membership number to access Naxos, anywhere and anytime.

To quote the late Duke Ellington: “the most important thing I look for in a musician is whether he knows how to listen.”

Happy listening.

[Ruth]

May the Force be with you

Alec Guinness: the authorised biographyOn 2 April 1914, at 155 Lauderdale Mansions, an unmarried mother called Agnes Cuffe gave birth to a son, Alec, whose father she never named.

When the boy was 14, his mother casually informed him that his real name was Guinness – though all attempts to trace his father and discover whether he was part of the famous brewing family failed. And it was as Alec Guinness that he became one of the most distinguished and beloved of all British actors.

Stage struck as a teenager, Guinness got his first break in the acting world early after boldly phoning up John Gielgud, already one of the leading actors of his day, and asking his advice. After drama school and a few small stage roles, in 1934 he appeared in Gielgud’s Hamlet at the New Theatre (now the Noel Coward) as Osric. His name is listed at the bottom of the cast in the Times of 15 November 1934, below Jack Hawkins (Horatio), Jessica Tandy (Ophelia) and Sam Beazley (Second Player). The redoubtable Mr Beazley is still alive, a talented artist, and was acting on the West End stage as recently as 2005.

Guinness’s other early plays included Love’s Labour’s Lost at the Old Vic,  in 1936, with Michael Redgrave and his wife Rachel Kempson plus Alec Clunes   (father of Martin) and Margaretta Scott, who older readers may remember as Mrs Pumphrey, owner of a memorable Pekinese in All Creatures Great and Small).

Kind Hearts and CoronetsYou can find about about Guinness’ stage career by looking through our newspaper archive (log in using your Westminster library card number). However there is no need to rely on reviews to find out about his distinguished film career which ranged from adaptations of Dickens to science fiction via dark war films and joyous comedies. Why not track some of them down – Kind Hearts and Coronets (in which Guinness famously played eight roles) and Great Expectations are particular favourites at Treasure Hunt Towers.

Of course, his most famous role for a younger generation (and one which he was slightly ungracious about, though it made his fortune) was that of the Jedi knight Obi Wan Kenobi in the Star Wars trilogy. You’ve probably seen those already, so instead of watching them again, why not listen to Sir Alec narrating Prokofiev’s famous musical story Peter and the Wolf instead? You can find the recording as part of the Naxos Music Library (again, log in with your library card).

Blessings in disguise by Alec GuinnessTowards the end of his life Guinness published a charmingly indiscreet memoir (Blessings in Disguise) and two volumes of pleasingly curmudgeonly diaries. For a more in-depth look at his stage, screen and writing career, check out the Guardian archive: go to Advanced search and look at the Arts, Film and Music database where you can read over 300 articles in academic journals about him. Or search Youtube to see him collecting an Oscar, being interviewed by Michael Parkinson and appearing in some of his most famous films.

[Nicky]

The Rite of Spring – uproar in 1913

100 years ago today – on May 29, 1913 – in Paris, Les Ballets Russes staged the first ballet performance of The Rite of Spring (Le Sacré du Printemps,) with music by Igor Stravinsky and choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky.

Igor StravinskyThe intensely rhythmic score and primitive scenario – a setting of scenes from pagan Russia – shocked audiences more accustomed to the demure conventions of classical ballet.

The complex music and violent dance steps depicting fertility rites first drew catcalls and whistles from the crowd, and were soon followed by shouts and fistfights in the aisles. The unrest in the audience escalated into a riot!

The Paris police arrived by the intermission, but restored only limited order – chaos reigned for the remainder of the performance. Nijinsky and Stravinsky were despondent. However, Sergei Diaghilev, the director of Les Ballets Russes, commented that the scandal was “just what I wanted.” The ballet went on to complete its run of six performances amid controversy, but no further disruption.

NijinskyStravinskyBoth Stravinsky and Nijinsky continued to work, but neither created pieces in this percussive and intense style again. In later years, The Rite of Spring came to be regarded as a ground-breaking 20th century masterpiece.

Pay a visit to Westminster Music Library where you can view a selection of the original concert programmes for performances dating back to the 1920s; we also have a number of journals which include quite a few scathing reviews:

“…little vital achievement from a composer who has attracted so much attention…”

“…at the end we were left wondering what all the fuss and fury was about…”

It’s entirely up to you whether you agree or not, but before you decide, why not give it a listen on-line via Naxos Music Library; just enter your library card number to access.

[Ruth]

An amateur against the impossible

Alan Rusbridger, editor of The Guardian newspaper, visited St John’s Wood Library last week to talk about his book Play It Again: An Amateur Against the Impossible.

Play it again, by Alan RusbridgerThe idea to invite somebody as busy as Mr Rusbridger to our neck of the woods came after a library customer asked us for his just-published memoir. The customer said the book sounded very intriguing and had received much praise… and that she thought Mr Rusbridger lived in the neighbourhood. Would he perhaps be willing to ‘stop by’ to promote his book? The Guardian is very transparent about their employees’ email addresses, so it was not difficult to send a message to the man himself – to which he replied quickly, accepting our invitation!

On the day of the presentation we compulsively checked the news to see whether a crisis was looming, so that we might be prepared in case our guest had to cancel his appearance. The news gods were on our side, and Mr Rusbridger arrived punctually in a Smart car.

In a diary spanning eighteen months, the author traced his endeavour to learn to play Chopin’s Ballade No.1 in G minor, Op 23 [Listen online via Naxos Music Library – just enter your library card number for access]. As he himself admits, the diary itself might not be very interesting to most people (with the possible exception of musicians), but we found that his writing makes the story an engaging read – in fact it’s very difficult to put down!

Alan Rusbridger at St John's Wood Library, May 2013

In addition to describing the beauty and friendships brought by music, Rusbridger also gives the context for his project, as well as behind-the-scenes stories from his professional life. We read about his job as editor in chief of a major news media company during some turbulent times for both the profession and the world, how lonely it can get at the very top, and about his vision during the digital revolution – one of several revolutions he mentions in the story. The book is also about becoming middle aged, finding time for ourselves in a busy daily schedule, the plasticity of our brain and how it is wired, and the role of amateurs’ passions.

Alan Rusbridger signing books at St John's Wood Library, May 2013 This story is very engaging not just because he has observations about many different topics but also because he is very nice and inspiring company. We found his unassuming manner and soft-spoken voice in person matched the impression we had got from the book: systematic, thoughtful, intelligent, persistent, patient and humorous.

Luckily the world was a calm place for a couple of hours, so our guest had time for questions and a little bit of chatting… but not wine – he was on his way to another meeting.

(Ivana)

The language of lurve

“All you need is love. But a little chocolate now and then doesn’t hurt.”

HeartWise words as always from Peanuts creator Charles Schulz.

And what better day than 14th February to look for love online? If all we find is chocolate, I doubt there’ll be many who are disappointed…

First off, who exactly was St Valentine? According to the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (which you can read as part of Oxford Reference Online by logging in with your Westminster Library card)

“The commemoration formerly observed on 14 Feb. appears to refer to two Valentines: a Roman priest martyred on the Flaminian Way under the Emp. Claudius (c.269) and a Bishop of Terni (Interamna) who was taken to Rome and martyred, and whose remains were later conveyed back to Terni. Though the surviving accounts of both martyrdoms are clearly legendary, there are indications that each contains a nucleus of fact; and it is just possible that the kernel of truth in the two legends refers to a single person. The traditional association of St Valentine’s day with courtship and the choosing of a ‘Valentine’ of the opposite sex is connected perhaps with certain customs of the pagan festival of Lupercalia (mid-Feb.) at Rome, or with the natural season, not with any tradition concerning either saint of the name.”

So far, so dull. The first recorded association of love with St Valentine is in Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Parliament of Fowls

“For this was on seynt Volantynys day
Whan euery bryd comyth there to chese his make”

Or, for the non-Medieval scholars among us –

“For this was on Saint Valentine’s Day, when every bird cometh there to choose his mate”

Ophelia mentions the day in Hamlet

“To-morrow is Saint Valentine’s day,
All in the morning betime,
And I a maid at your window,
To be your Valentine”

It wasn’t until the nineteenth century that the custom of sending Valentine’s cards really caught on. You can find some charming examples of Victorian valentine cards at The Scrap Album and read about how one American family sent them in Susan Coolidge’s children’s novel What Katy Did. Rather less charming was the custom of comic valentines. In Flora Thompson’s Lark Rise to Candleford, Laura the shy post office clerk-heroine received one

“With the picture of a hideous female handing out penny stamps and some printed doggerel which began:
‘You think yourself so lad-di-da And get yourself up so grand’
and went on to advise her always to wear a thick veil when she went out, or her face would frighten the cows. Underneath the verse was scrawled in pencil: ‘Wat you reely wants is a mask.’ She thrust it into the fire”

But how to celebrate Valentine’s Day now? If you haven’t booked a nice restaurant, it may be too late but there’s still time to cook a meal for the special someone in your life. Check out the Home & Garden section of the Gateway to Websites for some recipe sites. Why not try out the Movie Night Valentine’s Menu on the BBC site?

And of course you can’t have a movie night without movies so why not check out the Westminster libraries DVD collection for an appropriately romantic film. If you fancy a comedy, this RomCom list on IMDB might give you some ideas. Or maybe one from this list of gay romantic films. If you think that a weepie is the way forward, you can’t go wrong with Celia Johnson’s doomed love for Trevor Howard in Brief Encounter (a must for Archers listeners). And for ambient music? Well, we at Treasure Hunt Towers will be playing the Walrus of Love, Barry White but in the unlikely event that he doesn’t float your boat, why not have a look at Naxos Music Library which allows you to stream nearly 2 million tracks ranging covering every conceivable genre from reggae to opera. Just log in with your Westminster library card.

And for those of us who are on our own on Valentines Day? Well, why not adapt this charming Japanese custom for the benefit of your friends, colleagues or even [whisper it] the staff of your local library?

 “In Japan and Korea, Valentine’s has become almost an obligation for women to give chocolates, known as giri-choco, to all of their co-workers. A reciprocal day on 14th of March known as White Day has emerged in recent times whereby men are supposed to thank those who remembered them on Valentine’s Day with white chocolate or marshmallows, hence white day.”

[Nicky]